PHYSICAL EDUCATION - Basketball
_In early December 1891, Dr. James Naismith, a physical education professor and instructor at the International Young Men's Christian Association Training School (YMCA) (today, Springfield College) in Springfield, Massachusetts, USA), was trying to keep his gym class active on a rainy day.
He sought a vigorous indoor game to keep his students occupied and at proper levels of fitness during the long New England winters. After rejecting other ideas as either too rough or poorly suited to walled-in gymnasiums, he wrote the basic rules and nailed a peach basket onto a 10-foot (3.05 m) elevated track.
In contrast with modern basketball nets, this peach basket retained its bottom, and balls had to be retrieved manually after each "basket" or point scored; this proved inefficient, however, so the bottom of the basket was removed, allowing the balls to be poked out with a long dowel each time.
Basketball was originally played with an association football. The first balls made specifically for basketball were brown, and it was only in the late 1950s that Tony Hinkle, searching for a ball that would be more visible to players and spectators alike, introduced the orange ball that is now in common use. Dribbling was not part of the original game except for the "bounce pass" to teammates.
Passing the ball was the primary means of ball movement. Dribbling was eventually introduced but limited by the asymmetric shape of early balls. Dribbling only became a major part of the game around the 1950s, as manufacturing improved the ball shape.
The peach baskets were used until 1906 when they were finally replaced by metal hoops with backboards. A further change was soon made, so the ball merely passed through. Whenever a person got the ball in the basket, his team would gain a point. Whichever team got the most points won the game. The baskets were originally nailed to the mezzanine balcony of the playing court, but this proved impractical when spectators on the balcony began to interfere with shots.
The backboard was introduced to prevent this interference; it had the additional effect of allowing rebound shots. Naismith's handwritten diaries, discovered by his granddaughter in early 2006, indicate that he was nervous about the new game he had invented, which incorporated rules from a children's game called "Duck on a Rock", as many had failed before it. Naismith called the new game "Basket Ball". The first official game was played in the YMCA gymnasium in Albany, New York on January 20, 1892 with nine players.
The game ended at 1–0; the shot was made from 25 feet (7.6 m), on a court just half the size of a present-day Streetball or National Basketball Association (NBA) court. By 1897–1898 teams of five became standard.
_The only essential equipment in a basketball game is the basketball and the court: a flat, rectangular surface with baskets at opposite ends. Competitive levels require the use of more equipment such as clocks, score sheets, scoreboard(s), alternating possession arrows, and whistle-operated stop-clock systems..
A regulation basketball court in international games is 91.9 feet long and 49.2 feet wide. In the NBA and NCAA the court is 94 feet by 50 feet. Most courts have wood flooring, usually constructed from maple planks running in the same direction as the longer court dimension. The name and logo of the home team is usually painted on or around the center circle.
The basket is a steel rim 18 inches diameter with an attached net affixed to a backboard that measures 6 feet by 3.5 feet and one basket is at each end of the court. The white outlined box on the backboard is 18 inches high and 2 feet wide. At almost all levels of competition, the top of the rim is exactly 10 feet above the court and 4 feet inside the baseline.
While variation is possible in the dimensions of the court and backboard, it is considered important for the basket to be of the correct height – a rim that is off by just a few inches can have an adverse effect on shooting.
The size of the basketball is also regulated. For men, the official ball is 29.5 inches in circumference (size 7, or a "295 ball") and weighs 22 oz. If women are playing, the official basketball size is 28.5 inches in circumference (size 6, or a "285 ball") with a weight of 20 oz._
- 2 point field goal- a shot made from anywhere during play inside the 3 pt arc.
- 3 point field goal- a shot made from anywhere outside the 3 pt arc.
- Free throw- 1 point is awarded to an unguarded shot taken from behind the free throw line while the clock is stopped.
Boxing out- a player’s position between an opposing player and the basket to obtain a better rebounding position.
- Dribbling- bouncing the ball with 1 hand using your fingertips instead of your palm so that it rebounds back to yourself (the only legal way to move with the ball)
- Passing- moving the ball by throwing, bouncing, handing, or rolling it to another player (Chest, Bounce, Lob)
- Shooting- throwing the ball to make a basket
- Pivoting- stepping once or more in any direction with the same foot while holding the other foot at its initial point.
- Rebounding- The recovering of a shot that bounces off the backboard or the rim.
- Blocking- impeding the progress of an opponent by extending one or both arms horizontally or getting in the path of a moving player.
- Charging- running into a stationary player while you are moving with the ball.
- Hacking- the player hits the arm or hand of the person holding the ball.
- Holding- the player holds the person with or without the ball.
- Traveling- moving illegally with the ball
- Three seconds- an offensive player remains in the key (free throw lane- the area under the basket) for more than 3 seconds
- Double dribble- a player dribbles the ball with both hands at the same time or they stop and then start dribbling again
- Air ball- a shot that completely misses the rim and the backboard
- Assist- a pass to a teammate who then scores a field goal.
- Defense- team trying to stop the other team from scoring
- Dunk- to throw the ball down into the basket with the hand above the level of the rim
- Fast break- dribbling or passing the ball towards your basket before the defense can set up
- Man-to-man- a defensive strategy where everyone guards an assigned player
- Offense- team trying to score
- Turn over- any loss of the ball without a shot being taken
- Zone defense- a defensive strategy where everyone guards an area instead of a player (2-1-2, 2-
- The Senior Provisional Intercity Basketball Competition 2011
- PCYC Men's Basketball Competition
- Basketball Competition Sonic Linguistic 2012
_In basketball, the basketball court is the playing surface, consisting of a rectangular floor with tiles at either end. In professional or organized basketball, especially when played indoors, it is usually made out of a wood, often maple, and highly polished. Outdoor surfaces are generally made from standard paving materials such as concrete or asphalt
The object of the game is to shoot the ball through the hoop at either end of the court. When the game was first invented, actual peach baskets were used. Dr. James Naismith's original rules specified that "A goal shall be made when the ball is thrown or batted from the grounds into the basket and stays there, providing those defending the goal do not touch or disturb the goal." However, because it proved to be inconvenient to continually retrieve the ball from the baskets, the baskets were soon replaced by metal rings (usually with dangling netting attached to direct the ball straight down.) The ring ia attached to rectangular (or sometimes fanshaped) backboard made of either metal, fiberglass, acrylic, or tempered glass.
Basketball courts come in different shapes and sizes. In the NBA, the court is 94 feet by 50 ft (28.65m by 15.24m). Under International Basketball Federation (FIBA) rules, the court is minutely smaller, measuring exactly 28 m by 15 m (91'10.4" by 49'2.6"), although national federations are allowed to use smaller courts, as long as they are at least 26 m by 14 m (85'3.6" by 45'11.2"). A high school court is slightly smaller, at 84' by 50' and some elementary schools have courts measuring 74' x 42'. In amateur basketball, court sizes vary widely. The baskets are always 10' (3.05m) above the floor (except possibly in youth competition).
- University Of New Haven's Blue Turf
- LSU's Purple Turf
- Eastern Washington's Red Turf
- Matthew Knight Arena
Name: Los Angeles Lakers
Country: United States
Head Coach: Phil Jackson
Chairman: Jerry Buss
Venue: Staples Center, Los Angeles
LastSeason: NBA Champion
Superstars: Kobe Bryant, Pau Gasol, Ron Artest
2. Dallas Mavericks
Conference: Western Conference
Division: Southwest Division
History Dallas Mavericks: 1980–present
Arena: American Airlines Center
City: Dallas, Texas
Team colors: Light Royal Blue, Navy Blue, Silver, White,
Owner(s): Mark Cuban
General manager: Donnie Nelson
Head coach: Rick Carlisle
Official website: mavs.com